Montgomery, the capital of Alabama, Montgomery County. With a population of 205,764 inhabitants (2010), Montgomery is the 2nd largest city in the Alabama state (receding Birmingham) and 103 in the United States. Montgomery is also the center of a metropolitan area with the same name, which in 2010 was inhabited by 374 536 people, making it the 4th largest in Alabama and 136 in the country.
|Nickname: The Gump|
|Statistical code||FIPS: 01-51000|
SLOT ID: 0165,344
|Mayor||Todd Strange (R)|
|Height||73 m above sea level|
|Population (2010) |
510 per km²
|Zip Code||36101-36125, 36130|
|Time Zone||UTC - 06:00|
UTC - 05:00
Location on map of Alabama
Location on US Map
|United States portal|
Montgomery officially gained municipal rights in 1819, and in 1846 it gained the status of the capital. The event was then intended to symbolize the change of the center of power, which traveled to the central and southern areas of Alabama, where cotton was grown as a commodity crop, and Montgomery itself was characterized as an important shopping port. In February 1861 the city was elected the first capital of the Confederate States of America, but already in May the government moved its headquarters to Richmond, Virginia. In the mid-20th century, Montgomery played one of the most important roles in African Americans fighting for equal civil rights, led by the famous bus boycott.
Besides the fact that in Montgomery, a large number of state government agencies are based, the city has a Maxwell Air Force Base; public universities: University of Alabama (Alabama State University), Troy University (local campus) and Auburn University at Montgomery; private universities: Faulkner University and Huntingdon College; production facilities, including: Hyundai Motor Manufacturing Alabama; and attractions in the form of the Shakespeare Festival and the Museum of Fine Arts.
Prior to the European colonization, the left bank of the Alabama River was inhabited by the Indian Alibam tribe. Alibamu and Koasati, who occupied the opposite bank of the river, represented the culture of the Mississippi and used closely related Muslim languages. Modern Montgomery was built in a place where in the past there were two towns of Alabami: Ikanatchati ("Red Earth") and Towas (built on the Chunnaanaauga Chatty cliff). First Europeans, i.e. Hernando de Soto expedition, they arrived in central Alabama, in the Ikanatchati and Towas, in 1540.
Another visit by Europeans took place more than a century later, when in 1697 the British expedition reached the river Alabama. The first settler in modern Montgomery was James McQueen, a Scottish entrepreneur who settled there in 1716. He then married an influential woman from the Alibam or Koasati tribe, and their children were considered as Kriks.
In 1785, the war veteran Abraham Mordecai, who was a Sefardic family in Philadelphia, set up a shopping center, bringing his first ginner to Alabama. Meanwhile, after the defeat of the French in the seven-year war with the British, the Alibam and Koasati tribes left Montgomery, gradually moving south and west to Mississippi, Louisiana and Texas, under Spanish rule. However, the free areas were taken up by representatives of the Kriks, who migrated to the south in fear of tribal wars.
Krików Górni fought against the progress of American settlement, but their resistance was suppressed as a result of the war. In August 1814, Krikov suffered a final defeat in confrontation with General Andrew Jackson's troops, and were forced to hand over 23 million acres of land to the United States, including most of the central and southern Alabama. In 1816, Montgomery County was officially established.
The first large group of settlers to come to Montgomery was led by General John Scott. Immediately after they arrived, they founded the town of Alabama, located about 3 kilometers from the river Alabama. In June 1818, some of the county offices from Fort Jackson were transferred to the newly built Alabama city. Soon after that, Andrew Dexter founded another independent city, New Philadelphia, which is now the eastern part of Montgomery. In response to the fact that New Philadelphia was growing better, Scott and his comrades decided to create an Alabama adjacent city. Despite the initial rivalry, the cities founded by Scott and Dexter merged on December 3, 1819 to form a united Montgomery.
Montgomery, driven by profits from cotton trade, experienced rapid growth, becoming the capital of the county in 1822. On 28 January 1846, the decision was made to move the capital Alabama from the former Tuscaloos to Montgomery. By taking over this role, the city has become a central political center of the region, and has also had an impact on national politics.
With effect from February 4, 1861, representatives of the states of Alabama, Georgia, Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi and South Carolina began a series of meetings in Montgomery to form the Confederated States of America. Montgomery became the first capital of the newly formed state, headed by Jefferson Davis. On April 12, 1865, as a consequence of the Selma war, General James H. Wilson joined Montgomery in the EU.
In 1886, Montgomery became the first American city to start tram connections all over the city along a system called the Lightning Trail. As a result, Montgomery was one of the first cities to start moving housing estates from the very center to more suburban areas.
In the mid-20th century, Montgomery was an important center of African Americans' struggle for civil rights. On December 1, 1955, Rosa Parks was arrested because she refused to step down on a white man bus, which led to a famous boycott of buses in Montgomery. Martin Luther King, then pastor at the local Dexter Avenue Baptist Church, and lawyer E.D. Nixon appointed the Montgomery Improvement Association, which disseminated efforts to promote equal rights.
In June 1956, Judge Frank M. Johnson ruled that racial segregation in Montgomery's urban transport system was unconstitutional. After the United States Supreme Court maintained its position, the city began a process of desegregation of the bus system and the boycott ended. In May 1965, at the Greyhound bus station, there were clashes between opponents of this decision and activists for equal rights. The indignation of public opinion in the country has led to complete desegregation of interstate means of transport.
Martin Luther King returned to Montgomery in 1965, when local leaders of anti-segregation movements protested against Jim Crow's rights, which prevented African Americans from voting in elections. After the civil rally on Human rights were shot down by one of the participants, his leaders decided to march from Selma to Montgomery to petition Governor George Wallace, requesting that voters be registered freely. The brutal clashes of this period led to the adoption of the so-called The Voting Rights Act, which required African Americans and other minorities to vote.
In recent years, Montgomery has experienced the development and diversification of the local economy.
According to data from the US Census Bureau, the city covers a total area of 405 km², of which 402 km² is land and 2.1 km² is water. Montgomery was built in a rolled-up area, 67 meters above sea level.
Montgomery is located in a humid subtropical climate (Köppen - Cfa classification), with short, mild winters and long, hot, wet summers. The average temperature in January, the coldest month, is 8.1 °C (46.6 °F), rarely falling below -6.7 °C (20 °F). In July, the hottest month, the temperature averages 27.7 °C (81.8 °F). Furthermore, during 81 days of the year the temperature exceeds 32,2 °C (81,8 °F) and during 3 days of the year is above 37,8 °C (100 °F). In spring and autumn there are large differences between daytime and night temperatures.
The rainfall in Montgomery is fairly evenly distributed over all months, although the period from January to March is "the wettest", and October is clearly drier than the other months. The snowfall does not occur every year, and even when it occurs, it is light. The extreme temperatures reported in Montgomery are: -17,8 °C (0 °F) of 21 January 1985 and 41,7 °C (107 °F) of 7 July 1881.
|Maximum temperature records [°C]||28||29||32||34||37||41||46||41||41||38||31||29||42|
|Average temperatures per day [°C]||14.3||16.8||21.2||25||29.1||32.4||33.6||33.5||30.9||25.9||20.8||15.6||24.93|
|Average temperatures at night [°C]||2.1.||4.1.||7.6.||11||16.1||20.2||22||21.8||18.6||12.1||6.7.||3.2.||12.1|
|Minimum temperature records [°C]||-18||-14||-8||-2||4||9||15||13||4||-3||-11||-15||-18|
|Average number of days with precipitation||10.1||8.9.||8.7.||7.7.||7.6.||9.7.||11.5||9.1.||6.9.||6.7.||7.5.||9.8.||104.2|
|Average sunlight (hours)||151.9||166.7||220.1||252||266.6||261||263.5||251.1||225||229.4||171||151.9||2610.2|
The center of Montgomery lies along the southern bank of the river Alabama, about 9.7 km down from the confluence of the Coos and Tallapoosa rivers. The most important element of the city's panorama is the 120 meter RSA Tower, built in 1996 by Retirement Systems of Alabama. In addition, there are many state buildings in the center, including Alabama State Capitol, which lies on the top of the hill, on one of the ends of Dexter Avenue, near Dexter Avenue Baptist Church, where the pastor was Martin Luther King Both Capitol and Dexter Baptist Church were distinguished as National Historical Monuments by the Department of Internal Resources.
Near Capitol is also the First White House of Confected States of America. Built in 1835, an Italian-style house was inhabited by President Jefferson Davis and his family when Montgomery was the capital of the Confederation. The status of the National Historical Monument also holds the Union Station. Although since 1985 there has been no rail transport in Montgomery, Union Station is now part of the Riverwalk Park, which also includes the amphitheater, the river boat port and the Riverwalk Stadium.
Riverwalk is part of a great plan to revitalize the downtown area and connect it to the quay. The project includes the development of urban afforestation, new investments, as well as the renovation of the facades of residential and utility structures to support population and business growth in Montgomery. One of the investments made is a convention center, commissioned in 2007, with an area of 10 400 m².
In the oldest part of the city, Old Alabama Town, there are more than 50 restored buildings from the 19th century. In the southern section of Montgomery, Alabama State University is located, built in 1867. The campus of the university represents the neo-colonial architectural style. ASU surround two historical districts of the city: Garden District and Cloverdale Historic District; the houses in these areas date from 1875 to 1949 and are maintained in Victorian and Neo-Gothic styles. The district of Cloverdale is located at Huntingdon College, which has been operating since 1854. ASU, Garden District, Cloverdale and Huntingdon have been highlighted in the National Register of Historic Places as districts of exceptional historical importance.
The eastern side of the city is the fastest growing area of Montgomery. This is where the two largest shopping centers are located: Eastdale Mall and The Shoppes at Eastchase, hypermarkets, as well as new residential settlements. The East Side also houses Wynton M. Blount Cultural Park, a park with a surface area of 250 acres, where the annual Shakespeare Festival takes place, as well as the Museum of Fine Arts.
According to the 2010 census data, the population of the city is 205,764 inhabitants. There are 81 486 households in Montgomery, 29% of which are inhabited by children under 18 years of age. Racial composition was as follows: 56.6% were black, 37.3% were white, 3.7% were Latino, 2.2% were Asian, 0.2% were Indians, 0.1% were Pacific Island, 2.2% had different roots and 1.3% of the population represented at least two breeds.
By age, those under 18 accounted for 24.9% of the city's population, 11.7% of the population in the 18-24 range, 27.3% in the 25-44 range, 24.2% in the 45-64 range, and 11.8% of the population over 65. The average age oscillated around 34 years. Every 100 women had 88.6 men, and every 100 women had 84.5 men in the age range over 18. The average household income was $41,380 and the family $53,125. Men earned an average income of 40,255 dollars, while women earned 33,552 dollars. The per capita income was $23,139. About 18.2% of families and 21.6% of the entire population of the city were below the relative poverty line, including 34.8% of people under 18 and 8.4% of the population over 65.
As Montgomery is located in the center of the Alabama region of Black Belt (i.e. the land in the south of the country, which is famous for its agricultural traditions), the city is famous for growing cotton, peanuts and soya. In 1840, Montgomery County dominated the state-owned cotton production, while in 1911 the annual cotton production in the city ranged from 160 to 200,000 bels. The production of sawn timber and metals also plays an important role in the region's economy. Due to the location along the Alabama River and the extensive rail network, Montgomery remains a regional distribution center for many industries.
In 2006, the gross urban product (PMB) of Montgomery's metropolitan area was USD 12.15 billion (8.7% of Alabama's gross state product).
According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics survey of October 2008, the biggest employment sectors in the city, outside agriculture, were: government offices and institutions (24.3%); trade and transport (17.3%); Business (11.9%); production (10,9 %); education and health 10%; leisure and hotel activities (9,2%); finance (6%); natural, mining and construction resources (5,1 %); other (5.4%). The unemployment rate was 5.7%. In Montgomery, people who do not live in the administrative boundaries of cities work daily; the daily population of the city is increasing by 17.4%, to around 239,000.
In January 2011, the biggest employers in the city were: Maxwell-Gunter Air Force Base (12 280 workplaces), Alabama State (9 500 workplaces), Montgomery Public Schools School School School (4 524 workplaces), Baptist Health (4 300 workplaces), Hyundai Motor Manufacturing Alabama (2 700 workplaces), Alfa Insurance 2 568 jobs), Montgomery city (2 500 jobs), Jackson Hospital & Clinic (1 300 jobs), Rheem (1 147 jobs) and Regions (977 jobs).
In Montgomery there is the Museum of Fine Arts, presenting a collection of American works and sculptures, mainly southern culture, glass and porcelain products, as well as the works of European creators. The Society for Art and Artistic Crafts runs its own gallery, which consists of local artists' works. Hank Williams Museum, which boasts one of the largest collections of Hank Williams souvenirs in the world, is also located in the city. Montgomery Zoo, one of only two Alabama zoos accredited by the American Association of Zoos and Aquariums, has more than 500 specimens of animals on its territory of 40 acres.
In the city park of Blount Park there is the Carolyn Blount Theater, where the annual Shakespeare Festival takes place, where not only William Shakespeare's plays are exhibited, but also performances of local importance. Troy University campus includes 1 200 Davis Theater for the Performing Arts, opened in 1930 and renovated in 1983. Its headquarters at Davis Theater include: Montgomery Symphony Orchestra, Alabama Dance Theater and Montgomery Ballet. In 1941, Capri Theater was built, where the show of independent cinema is held today. In addition, the annual music festival Jubilee CityFest is organized in Montgomery.
Several world-renowned artists came from or started their career in Montgomery. They took their first steps in music in Montgomery, including: jazz singer and musician Nat King Cole, country singer Hank Williams, blues artists Big Mama Thornton and Melvin Franklin from The Temptations, and guitarist Tommy Shaw from Styx. In Montgomery Zelda Sayre was born, who married writer F. Scott Fitzgerald in 1920; The house where they lived now serves as F. Scott and Zelda Fitzgerald Museum. Poet Sidney Lanier lived in Montgomery just after the end of the Civil War, writing here Tiger Lilies.
According to the 2010 census, the largest religious groups in the agglomeration were:
- South Baptist Convention: 81,816 members in 145 churches
- United Methodist Church: 30,971 members in 70 churches
- US National Baptist Convention: 23,948 members in 49 churches
- Dominant Protestantism: 14,926 members in 70 churches
- Churches of Christ: 13,319 members in 81 churches
- Catholic Church: 11,923 members in 12 churches
- Church of God in Christ: 8970 members in 10 churches
- African Methodist-Episcopal Church of Zion: 679 members in 39 churches
- National Baptist Convention of America: 5806 members in 2 churches
- American Baptist Church in the United States: 5065 members in 2 churches
- Pentecostal Church of Holiness: 4,901 members in 4 churches
- Jehovah's witnesses: 10 collections
The city has no representatives in any of the four most important professional sports leagues in the United States (NHL, NBA, NFL, MLB).
Instead, Montgomery has a baseball team in Montgomery Biscuits that plays the AA class of the Southern League (Minor league baseball). The home object of Biscuits is Montgomery Riverwalk Stadium. The Riverwalk Stadium was also the national NCAA Division II basketball finals between 2004 and 2007; earlier, in the years 1985-2003, these finals also took place in Montgomery, but at the Paterson Field.
Alabama State University Hornets sports teams compete in the NCAA Division I, at the Southwestern Athletic Conference (SWAC). The American football team plays home matches at Hornet Stadium, baseball at ASU Baseball Complex, and basketball at Dunn-Oliver Acadome. Auburn University at Montgomery has its representatives in NAIA, as does Faulkner University. Huntingdon College is in the NCAA Division III.
Among the most famous athletes originating in Montgomery is a trainer and player, a member of the Pro Football Hall of Fame Bart Starr and a runner, a double gold Olympic medalist Alonzo Babers.
Montgomery City and County are operated by the Montgomery Public Schools System, which in 2007 included 32,520 students and 2,382 teachers. The system brings together 32 primary schools, 10 secondary schools and 4 secondary schools, as well as 9 schools with an extended program in a given field, 1 school with alternative learning methods and 2 centers of special pedagogy. There are also 28 private schools in the city and surrounding areas. In 2008, the Loveless Academic Magnet Program (LAMP) was awarded by the U.S. News & World Report magazine on the 20th place of the list of the best secondary schools in the United States. The system of urban public libraries is managed by Montgomery City-County Public Library.
Montgomery is home to the University of Alabama, a historically black university that now brings together over 5,600 students from 42 US states and 7 countries. Another public university, Troy University, has more than 3,000 students and has a valued library and Rosa Parks museum. In Montgomery also operates a satellite campus Auburn University, with more than 5,000 students. Non-public universities in the city include, among others, Faulkner University, Huntingdon College, Amridge University.
The Maxwell Air Force Base has a local Air University branch, the center of professional military education of the United States Air Force.
Montgomery is governed by the mayor-city council system; in both cases, the office shall have a term of office of four years. Todd Strange, who was elected mayor at the special elections of 10 March 2009 following the election of former mayor Bobby Bright to the Congress. The Urban Council consists of nine members, representing nine districts of similar size.
As the headquarters of Montgomery County and the capital of Alabama State, the city has a number of public offices, including the seat of the Governor, Parliament and the Supreme Court of Alabama.
Montgomery, like the entire state of Alabama, is one of the bastions of the Republican Party.
Montgomery's crime rates are positive compared to other major cities in Alabama. In 2009, this figure was 429.4 per 100,000 inhabitants, which was below the state and national average. However, in the case of crimes against property, the Montgomery index is similar to other cities in Alabama, but at the same time larger than the state and national average.
- Italy: Pietrasound
- Wikivoyage: Montgomery)
- The official website of the city of Montgomery ()
- Montgomery (Alabama) in city-data.com (ang)
- Montgomery in the encyclopedia of Alabama (US)